Temporal Variation of NO2 and O3 in Rome (Italy) from Pandora and In Situ Measurements

To assess the best measures for the improvement of air quality, it is crucial to investigate in situ and columnar pollution levels. In this study, ground-based measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and ozone (O3 ) collected in Rome (Italy) between 2017 and 2022 are analyzed. Pandora sunspectrometers provided the time series of the NO2 vertical column density (VC-NO2 ), tropospheric column density (TC-NO2 ), near-surface concentration (SC-NO2 ), and the O3 vertical column density (VC-O3 ). In situ concentrations of NO2 and O3 are provided by an urban background air quality station. The results show a clear reduction of NO2 over the years, thanks to the recent ecological transition policies, with marked seasonal variability, observable both by columnar and in situ data. Otherwise, O3 does not show inter-annual variations, although a clear seasonal cycle is detectable. The results suggest that the variation of in situ O3 is mainly imputable to photochemical reactions while, in the VC-O3 , it is triggered by the predominant contribution of stratospheric O3 . The outcomes highlight the importance of co-located in situ and columnar measurements in urban environments to investigate physical and chemical processes driving air pollution and to design tailored climate change adaptation strategies.

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